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Robert Todd Carroll

 the truth is in here!

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evolutionary psychology ȭ ɸ

...the mind is a set of information-processing machines that were designed by natural selection to solve adaptive problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
Leda Cosmides & John Tooby

The mind is an adaptation designed by natural selection....And the ultimate goal of natural selection is to propagate genes....Our minds are designed to generate behavior that would have been adaptive, on average, in our ancestral environment....
--Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works

Living things have parts which are clearly functional; they are there for something. In fact they are there for the survival and reproduction of the object theyre part of. So one aspect of life is that its not only complicated, but its complicated in an adaptive way. Hands and kidneys and livers and noses and eyes and ears and so on -- everythings adapted for something
--John Maynard Smith

Evolutionary adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should not be used unnecessarily, and an effect should not be called a function unless it is clearly produced by design and not by chance. When recognized, adaptation should be attributed to no higher a level of organization than is demanded by the evidence. 
--George Williams, Adaptation and Natural Selection

Evolutionary psychology could, in my view, become a fruitful science by replacing its current penchant for narrow, and often barren, speculation with respect for the pluralistic range of available alternatives that are just as evolutionary in status, more probable in actual occurrence, and not limited to the blinkered view that evolutionary explanations must identify adaptations produced by natural selection.
--Stephen Jay Gould

ȭ ɸ ȸ ϰ ΰ ִ. ּ ̰ John Tooby Leda Cosmides ̴. ׵ UC Santa Barbara husband-and-wife team 1992⿡ ´. Tooby Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES) ȭ ɸ å̴.

ȸ E.O.Wilson Sociobiology: The New Synthesis(1975) ̴. ڿ(ڹ) ̸ ȭ ̸ ߿ öڷ Ǿ. ״ ൿ ȭ ؼ ̴. ΰൿ ̷ ȸ ҷŰ й о߰ Ǿ а ȯ濡 ̸ Ѽ ɸа ְ ִٴ ߰ߴ.

ȭɸ ⺻ ΰ ൿ ȭ ǥ ϼϱ ̶ ִٴ ̴. ȭ  , ȭ μ  Ͼ ڿ ִ ó ī ǥ ִٴ Ű澲 . ؼ ȭ ǽ ǵϴ ٰ ־ Ѵ. 츮 â ϴ̳ Ȥ ǽİ ׷ 縦 Ѵٸ ȭ ִ.

ȭ ֵ ǥ ȭ ɸп ϸ ̴. δ, ΰ ൿ ɼ ̱ ִ. ٸ ϴ. ü ߵ ׷ ͺ ڼ . ׷ ׵ ϱ ؼ ִ ƴϴ. ȫ Ƹٿ âϱ ؼ ִ 𸣸  ̴ ̸ ̿ؼ ȫ װ ߸ ̴.   Ʈ ԰ ִٸ ̴. (species) ¸ ִٸ, ̰ adaptation ƴϴ. Ƴ ̴. ׵ ļ ̴. ߿ ̸ ü ̴.

Ʒ 2 ʵ ȭ ɸ ü ʵ̴. (1) Randy Thornhill and Craig T. Palmer ' ڿ : (A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion , 2000)'  (2) Kevin MacDonald ' ȭ : 20 ġ  ȭ м (The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements ,1998)'̴.

ȭ μ

Thornhill Palmer ڵ  ڼ ۶߸ ⺻ ϵ ̸ ٰ ߴ. ׷Ƿ ʱ ؼ ׳ฦ ŷ ̰ ؾѴٴ ̴. ڽ ϱ⸦ ٷ ʵǴ ̰ ڿ̰ ΰ ׸ ɸ κ̱ ̴. Ʈ ũ 2000 Puerto Rican Day Parade Thornhill Palmer ϴ ִ. (25 ڵ 50 ߴٰ ҵǾ ó ־ ƹ͵ ʾҴٰ Ѵ.) ׷, ൿϴ ƴϴ. ̼ ڵ ڽ ϰ 忡 ൿϴ ͵ ƴϴ. κ ڴ ƴ϶ ص ڵ ǽ Ƿ ǻ 巯 ڳ ڶ , ٸ ڵ , ׳ ʵ ȴ. ڵ ɰ ȭ  ñϴ. 츮 ׵  ̹ ˰ ִ. 츮 DNA ӽŰ ؼ Ǿ Ѵٴ ̴. и ̰ ٸ ʴ ڰ ׵ ۶߸ Ȯ . Ǵ Ƹ ״ ȹ ڵ ⸸ 𸥴. ٸ ȥϱ Ϻó ϶ 鼭 ׵ ȸ  Ǵ´ ȣó Ȱ ִٸ 񵵴 ļ ̴.

Thornhill Palmer Ǵٸ, ΰ̶ ƳҴٴ δ. ڼ ۶߸µ ϰ ͺ  . ְ ӽŽŰ Ȯ Ƹ ؼ ڿ Ⱓ 踦 ϴ ͺ ξ Ȯ ̴. ļ ʹٸ ֺ ӹ ڸ ȣؾ ̴. ٸ ڵ ħ ϰ ؾ Ѵ. ļ 븦 ̾, ļ  ȣϰ ̴ 븦 Ѵ. ļ ؼ ٸ Ѹ Ǿ . Thornhill Palmer ϴ ɷ ٴ ڷḦ ִٸ ׵ ̷ ´ٰ ϰ 𸥴. DNA θ Ʈ ̶ Ѵٸ ϴ 츮 (species)߿ û η ̴.

ε ȭ

ĶϾ պġ MacDonald ȸ к ̰ ϰ ִ. ״ ε ׵ ȭ Բϴ ȭ ִٰ ϰ ִ. Ϻδ Ǹ ϰ ִ. New Times Los Angeles װ(Tony Ortega) ϸ

MacDonald ǿ ϱ ؼ, ׵ ȭ κ ̱ 20  ֵ,    ߿ ΰø 鿡 ׵ ⵵  ̷  ...

ȭ ɸ Ƶ, õⰣ ׵ α׷ ߱ IQ ˻翡 ξ ϴٰ ܾߴ. ̰ ׵ Ʈ ϰ £ ڰ ǵ Ͽ. ׷ ݴ ̰ ε ̿ ߱ϱ⵵ ߴ. ٸ Ǵ ̼ ο ƴ϶ λ깰 ص ִ ̴.

װ Ƶ ̷ ֵ Ŵ ̾ б Ʈ ̶ ߴ. Ƶ ȦڽƮ ̺ ؼ ν ڷμ ġ .


߰ ߰ Ϻ

evolutionary psychology and terrorism

For those who think that the above characterization of evolutionary psychology is a caricature, consider how eloquent this theory is as an explanation for terrorism, especially for the type of terrorism that is conducted by people who aim to kill themselves while committing their acts of terror. The sexual strategy exhibited here is simple. As a bonus the strategy solves the problem of jealousy, a plague to men and women of all ages. Clearly, the terrorist aims to reduce the chances of his enemy's genes being reproduced. War, in fact, is just a man's way of eliminating potential adulterers from cuckolding him. Yet, it may seem inexplicable that a man would kill himself or put his life in imminent danger of being ended just to block a few sperm from swimming towards his mate's eggs. After all, he can't spread his genetic material unto future generations if he is dead. But evolutionary psychology has an answer for this seeming paradox. Suicide bombers and soldiers are unattractive men with small brains who have been manipulated by men with big brains and large testicles. The aim of the manipulators is clear: reduce the competition for egg fertilization. Those who are manipulated are, simply put, evolution's losers. Some believe that religion and nationalism were invented as a kind of handy tool for this kind of manipulation. The big-brained convince the unattractive small-brained that by dying or killing themselves for the faith or the nation, they will be rewarded with some special prize in the afterlife. The unattractive small-brained figure they don't have much chance of spreading their seed anyway, so why not go for an orgy in the afterlife where their ugliness or cranial size will not count against them? The Roman's had their Elysian Fields and the believers in jihad have their voluptuous young maidens (houri) waiting for them in heaven. In the meantime, the big-brained are left to do their religious and patriotic duty and fertilize as many living women as possible.

evolutionary psychology and hindsight

The theories of some evolutionary psychologists are explanations that, with hindsight, seem plausible. But they seem to lack one key ingredient of scientific theories: predictive power. They seem to be about as useful as the Bible Code for predicting the future, though both might seem capable of  retrodicting the past. Neither seem particularly useful for understanding the present. 

In many ways, the speculations of some evolutionary psychologists are reminiscent of psychoanalysis. They explain everything and hence cannot be tested empirically. Nothing could ever refute them. They offer plausible sounding explanations based upon plausible sounding speculations. They remind us of how easy it is to find data to support just about any hypothesis, as long as we ignore contrary evidence or posit untestable hypotheses. They appear to be makers of myths for academic psychologists as the Freudians were in a previous generation. Will evolutionary psychology go the way of Freudian psychology or will it become a brave new science, providing us with a firm and empirically grounded understanding of human behavior? Only time will tell.

ȭ ɸ Ѵ.

ȭ ɸ ΰ ൿ 'ڻ'̶ ϴ ſ ٴ ߰ߴ. ൿ θ ۶߸ ϰ ִٰ Ѵٸ ʸ ִ ̴. ,  ٸ ȭ ִٴ ߸ ϰ ִ. ڿ ִ ƴϸ θ ۶߸ ϴ . ڰ Ƴڴٴ ٸ Ƴ ̴. Ƴ κδ ε ׵ ɼ ̵ ൿϱ ̴. ׵ ׵ ̷ 뿡 Ȯ ޵ǵ ɰ ൿ ϴ ƴϴ.

ȭ ɸ ׷ ϰ ̸ ߿ ׷. ̷ ϴ ߿ . ɷ̴. ׵ ̷ ϴµ ̺ ڵ(Bible Code) 뼺 ̴. ̵ Ÿ ¥ ߴµ ̴. ̰͵ 縦 ϴµ Ư ʴ.

κ ֱ ȭ ɸ п ʸ ΰ ִ ƴ . () ׵ õ ȴ. ׷ . ׵ ׵ ̴. ׵ ׷ ʴٸ ü Ƴ ų Ȥ ٸ Ǿ ̴. Ѵ. ׷ ̰ ϰ ƴϴ. װ ϴ ƴϴ. װ . ̰ 츮 ߾ ̴.

鿡 ȭ ɸ ɸм Ѵ. ̰͵  ͵̳ ׷Ƿ ͵̴.  ͵ ̰͵ . ̰͵ ׷ ϰ ո ׷ ϰ ո Ѵ. ̰͵ 츮 ݴǴ ŵ ϰ Ȥ Ƿ Ѵٸ  츮 󸶳 ϴ մ ڷḦ ش. ׵ а ȭ  ó δ.

õ ׸ : confirmation bias and pseudoscience.

б ڷ

reader comments

Alexander, Richard D. The Biology of Moral Systems (Aldine De Gruyter 1987).

Mayr, Ernst. This Is Biology : The Science of the Living World (Belknap Press, 1998).

Mayr, Ernst. Toward a New Philosophy of Biology : Observations of an Evolutionist (Harvard University Press, 1989).

Williams, George C. Adaptation and Natural Selection : A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought (Princeton University Press, 1996).

Copyright 2000
Robert Todd Carroll

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Last updated 10/14/00

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