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Robert Todd Carroll

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Lysenkoism,

Ƕ, ð Ĺ ϼҺġ (Trofim Denisovich Lysenko, 1898-1976) ҺƮ þ Ǽҵ̴. ڴ /Ż ô, ߸ Ǹ ֵ ̾. ̾, ߸(I. V. Michurin) 󸶸ũǸ ߴ. 󸶸ũ 18 ڷ, ٴ ξ ȭ ϰ ִ. ׷ 󸶸ũ ̷ ڿ ü ó ȭ ϰ ⶧, ȭڿ Ͽ ޾Ƶ鿩 ʴ´.

󸶸ũ ϸ, ȭ Ȱ ȹ ȴٰ Ѵ. , ⸰ ִ ȵǴ ȯ濡 ٰ Ѵٸ ⸰ Ծ߸ ִ. ׷, ⸰ þ߸, ̷ þ , ϰ 屸 ( Ͽ) 뿡 . , ª ۿ ʾҴ ⸰ , ȭߴٰ Ѵ.

ڿ δ, ⸰ ڿ ۿ ϰ ִ. , ڿ ⸰ ٸ ª Ǯ Դ ſ, ִ Ե ۿߴٰ Ѵ. ȯ濡 μ ո ൿ ڼտ ʴ´. ̳ ȯ ߿ ־, ٸ ⸰ ԰ ̿ ̾. , ڿ δ ̰ ϰ ִ ̿ٸ, ų, ų, ϴ ư ִ ۿ Ƴ ߴٴ ̴. ڿ δ, ȹ ŵ Ư ʿ . , ߴٴ ߿ ͵ . , ϰ ִٰ Ϳ , Ҹ ͺ ϴٴ ƴϴ. ȯ濡 մؼ ׵ ̴. , ⸰ , ̰ ְ, ־ Ϳ ġ ̴. , ִ ̿ Ű ԵǾ ִٸ ƹ ⸰ ׵ ϰ Ϸ Ͽ ̴.

󸶸ũ, ⺻ ̶ ϴ , 20 ö Ӹ ׼۵ Ѵ.dz ڿ ü, θ âϰ, ο ִٰ ϴ κпԼ ̿޾Ҵ. , ٺ ڵ鿡Լ ô޾Ҵ. ڿ ̸鼭 ̰, ̰, ̹Ƿ, ũڴ ٰ 𸣴. źڴ, , ٷο 󸶸Ű ٰ 𸥴. ׷, þƿ ҺƮ ȸ ȭ ¥ ũڰ ƴϾ. ׵ ѷŸ 縦 ų (, Ĵ Ż) ٲپ ȴ. ׸ Ż Ŀ, ؼ ڰ ϰ Ǿ.

·, ߸ ȭ ش ҷ . ҷ ̿ а谡 ൨ ο ϰ ִ , þƿ ο ҷÿ ̷. ҷ ̿ а迡 ϰ ȭ , ҷ ġ Ƿ ϰ, ȭ ־ ڸ ݴ.

ڳ, ڿ ϰ 󸶸Ű ź ¥ ڰ, ҿ ų ҷÿ ¶̴. ڴ 1948 þ ȸǿ, ൨ "ݵ̸鼭 ̴"̴, ׸ ൨ źڴ "ҺƮ ι ̴" ϰ, Ƿ [Gardner]. ״ ڽ ǰ ߾ ȸ ް ִٰ ̾߱ߴ. ڴ Ƿ¿ ϰų, ߸ ùٸ ϴ Ѱ. ׵ ҿ ų, Ȥ ٽô ҽ ϰ Ǿ.

ϰ 迡 ٰϰ ̷ ƴ, ħ ٶ ̵÷α⿡ µ Ǿ߸ ߴ. ؼ ؾߵǰ, ̵÷α⿡ ؾߵǾ. ־. ҺƮ ߴ.

̱ ̿ Ͼ ? Ƹ,  ̹ Ͼ ִٰ Ѵ. ù°, б ȭ ġ Ű â Ȱ ְ, ϰ ִ. ð ̰ ϰ, κ ǰ, ȿ ǰų ϸ, 츮  ˸ϴ. , ̱ ̵÷α⸦ ϰ ִ, ϰ ڱ dz ڴ Ѵ. , ⵶ ٺǰ ƴ϶, ̵÷α⸦ ̴. ڴ ̿뿡 ݴϰ , ̵÷α⿡ 縦 谡 󸶳 ˾Ҵٸ, Ʋ ٲپ ̴. J. ʸ. ư̳ Ƽ , , 츥Ÿ, ӷ ̵÷α⸦ ϴµ ͸ ϰ ֵ ־ٸ, ڴ ҺƮ ְ ȸǸ ϰ, ̿Ͽ, ڿ ð п 󸶸Ű ̴. ̷ ̺ڴ ̵÷α ´ ٺ ãƳ ߴ. ڵ ߸󸶸ũ Ƕ ̵÷α⸦ , ߾ ̴.

( : ڴ ũǿ ִٴ ̿߰, ڴ Ż Ѿָ 鼭. å ƴµ, ״ ڰ ƴϾ, ״ 󸶸ũ ҿ뼳 źߴ. װ , ڵ ͹ , ҷ 忡 ٸ, ķ ɰߴ ҷÿ а ȣ 귮 ޼ӵ ϴٰ ϴ ſ ŷ . ȹ ׷ǹ̿ ġ ŷϼ ۿ . ׸ ݴؼ ߿ Ż ߴ ķ ų ־ ־µ, ״ ٷ Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov . ״ Ĺ ū κп ʸ Ҵ. 翬 ʾҰ, ״ Ż ر Բ, Ҿȴ. )


б ڷ

reader comments

Gardner, Martin. "Lysenkoism," ch. 12 in Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (New York: Dover Books, 1957).

Levins, Richard  and Richard Lewontin. "Lysenkoism," in The Dialectical Biologist (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1985).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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