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Robert Todd Carroll

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mesmerism, ޽Ӹ

޽Ӹ 18 ǻ ޽(Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer) ؼ ߵ Ƿ ̴. ̰ Ͻø Ŵ ޽Ӷ Ͻÿ ؼ ޽ӶǴ ȯڵ ȸ Ȱ õǾ ִ. ޽Ӵ Ͻ ɷ ̿ؼ ̳ Ȥ ڴ ư(trance) ¿ ߸ ־. ߱ ó 츮 ٸ ̷ ϴ ϴµ ̸ ִ.

1770 ʹݿ ༺ ǰ ġ ⿡ ؼ ǥ ڻ 񿣳 ǻ翴 ޽Ӵ, 񿣳 ȸ ź̰ ġ ƽùи (Maximillian Hell) . Ŀ ׵ ü Ѵ. ź Hell ڼ ƴ. ڼ ġ "" ٸ ƴ϶ װ ȿ ִٴ ִٴ ̾. ޽Ӵ ڱ ̷ ǥ ̷ ȿ Ÿ 帣 ̹ ڱ ü ̸ ̰ 帧 ظ , ϰ 帣 ؼ ٽ Ǯ־ Ѵٰ ߴ. ޽Ӵ ̷ ڱ 帧 ڼ Ǯشٰ ̷ȭߴ. ( ޽Ӱ ߱ 帧 Ǯִ ħ 뵵 ؼ ˰ ־ ñϴ. ġ ŽӿԼ ñϴ.) ޽Ӵ ᱹ ڼ ̵ ִٴ ߰ߴ. ̰ öú ȿ ʰ ״ ڱ ü 帧 ִ ɷ ؼ " ڱ(animal magnetism)" ߴ. (ó, " ڱ" ޽Ӹ Ȥ ָ ǹѴ. 鿡 ؼ ǹϰų Ȥ οԼ ŷ ǹϴ ߸ ̴ .)

޽Ӵ ̷ ؼ ڼ ʿ ʴٴ ߰ ״ (robes) ԰ ž ġó ȯ ֺ ƴٴϸ鼭, ڼ ĵó ̳, Ȥ ȯڸ ڱȭ ų, Ȥ ڼ ϴ ȿ ߵ · . ״ ȯڵ ῡ ϴ ͺ ߰ų Ȥ ϰ ϴ Ϳ ̸ پϰ ̷ο ൿ ų ־. ޽Ӵ ⺻ ó ָ ̳ ϴ , ׸ žġ Ŀ Ʈ Ȥ ȸ ߴ ̸, ȥڼ ̷ , ڱ ġḦ Ǹ . 16 Ӷ߿ͳƮ ޽Ӵ 'ڱ (Magnetic Institute)' ű⼭ ״ ȯڵ ڱȭ ൿ ״. ״ ߿ ü踦 ߰ Ǹ鼭 ׸ ڹ ÷Ŭ Ե ȸκ ޾Ҵ.

źο ޽ ڻ ƴ°? ƴϴ. ׵ ȯڵ ׵ ġḦ ų Ȥ ׵ Ҵٰ ߴ°? 翬ϴ. žġ̳ ̵ "ߴٴ " ִ. ʿ ׵ ׵ ڽŵ Ͻ Ͻ Ͽ . ̷ ǻ Ƿ ü Ÿ⵵ ϰ Ÿ ִ. ̷ "Ƿɿ 鸮 "ŭ ɰ ְ, " ģ " ִ. ׵ Ǵ ȥ(stupor : - ڱؿ Ͻ ִ ) ִ. ݶ ij뽺 , ̷ ȯڵ ǻ/ָ ȯ ϱ ϱ ʾҴٰ Ѵ. ij뽺 ظ, Ǵ ΰ ǿ (ܻ, iatrogenic disease, : ǻ Ƿ )̸ Ƿɿ ҽ, ׸ ΰ ִ źм, ׸ ޽Ӹ Ͻ ϴ ġ Ͱ , ġᰡ Ǿٰ Ѵ. ij뽺 ΰ ׷ ΰ ȯڷμ Ǵ Ϻ ȯڿ ޾Ƶ鿩 ȸ â̶ ϰ ִ. (ιƮ Ŀ ָ ؼ ϰ ִ.)

ij뽺 ȸ ̳ ڵ鿡 ͽ Ѵ ǽ ؾ߸ ϴ ͽŵ鸰 ϰ Ǵ Ͽ. ׵ ȸ Ȳ(social context) ׵ ȴ. ij뽺 ׸ ߰ ġ , MPD ġ , ޽ӿ ġ ̿ ٸ ̰ ٰ ִ. , , ȿ ִ  翡 ̸, ؼ 簡 ؾ Ѵٰ ȮŽŲ ġ翡 ؼ Ҵٰ ϴ ij뽺 ȸ ϴٰ ϴ ̶ Ѵ. ͽ ѾƳ(entity-release) ġ簡 ƴ°? ƴϴ. ׷ ׳ ȯڴ ġḦ ٰ °? ׷ . ׳ ȯڵ ġῡ ؼ ġǾٰ ΰ? Ϻδ ׷ ̴.

׷ ̳ ޽, Ȥ ġ ȵ ̳ (Deepak Chopra) ãƿ ? ׵ ġᰡ ǰ, ׵ , ǰ, ׵ ÷ ȸǰ, ׵ ڿ ٽ Ƴ ʾҴ°? žġ翡 ؼ λ ߴٴ ̴. δ, ̷ ȭ ȭ ϴ 屸 ־ ȭ ΰ ൿμ ո ɼ ־ ̴. , ʰ ָ Ȥ ħ Ȥ ͽ ѾƳ(entity-release) ġ 湮ڿ, Ȥ žġ縦 ѹ 湮 ڷ 踦 ̴. ݸ鿡 ȯڴ ൿδ Ѵ. ̰ ڼ̳ Ȥ ⵵ϴ ε .

޽ӿ "ġ" ߴٸ, ׵ ġ ȯڵ ڽ̴. ׵ ׵ Ϳ ģ 踦 ϰ ׵ (޽) ϴ Ͻÿ Ѵ. ֳϸ ׵ ׵鿡 ϱ ߱ ̴. ϸ, ġ ̴. ġᳪ ൿȭ ð ٸ ִ. , ؾǿ ؼ ϸ鼭  Ȥ ϴ ۸ս 25,000 ޷ ޴´. ߵ װ ĶϾ (La Jolla, California) ִ 250 ޷ ÿ ġ ʴ . ״ å , , ⿬ û ұ ū ־. ڵ ׿ ׵ ׷ ϱ ٶ µ Ѵ. ׷, װ ָ糪 žġ ⸦ ̿ϴ ƴϱ 츮  װ ׷ 鿡 ֹ ɾ Ǿϴ. ϴµ ִ ƴ϶, ڵ ʿ -̿ ̴.

, ϰ ϴ źο ޽ ڻǿȥ ο ڱ ڱ(magnetic stimulation)ϸ ȯڿ ִ° Ѵٴ ˸ Ƹ ູ ̴. κ ๰ ġ ſ 쿡 (electroconvulsive therapy, ECT) ϴ . ̷ ٱ ư ԰ ̰ κ ߸ü ؼ dzڵ ̴. ǰ (National Institute of Mental Health, NIMH) ݺ 汸 ڱڱ(transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) ECT ȿ ۿ(, ǵ ȯڿ ߻Ѵ.) ⸦ ϰ ִ. ڱ Ȥ ڱ ü ٰ ƴϸ, (1)ECT ȿ ִ ȿ (2) ο ɸ γ õ ̶ Ͻõǰ , (3) ECT TMS ǽ γ Ȱ ϰ Ѵٴ Ͱ (4) ECT Ŀ ȯڵ Ǵ ϸ, (5) 迡 TMSġḦ Ϻ ȯڵ鿡Լ ٴ ߰ߵǾٴ Ϳ ٰŸ ΰ ִ. , ٸ ޽Ӱ ко߿ ͼ 氡  ̶ . TMS ϴ ڵ žġ ƴϴ. ׵ Ƹ ġᰡ ġ ų Ȥ ϴٰ ִ.

õ ׸ : exorcismhypnosis, and multiple personality disorder.


б ڷ

"Magnetic stimulation studied as alternative to ECT for depression," in NAMI Advocate, vol. 19, no. 2, September/October 1997, pp. 20-21.

Baker, Robert A. They Call It Hypnosis (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1990).

Randi, James. An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural , (N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, 1995).

Spanos, Nicholas P. Multiple Identities and False Memories: A Sociocognitive Perspective (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1996).

Copyright 1998
Robert Todd Carroll

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