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Robert Todd Carroll

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repressed memory therapy (a.k.a. trauma-search therapy) б

б (Repressed memory therapy, RMT) ɸ Ž, , , Ҹ, excessive anxiety ǽ е  ̶ ϰ ִ. RMT ǰ ɸ ´ е ãƳ  ¼߸ ȸȴٰ ϰ ִ.

 󸶳 °?

̱ 豹 (U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics) 1996-97 ̿ ָ ڵ ׵ 36% 17 ̳ ü (abuse, : abuse ǹ̷ ׸񿡼 κ ̶ ߴ.) ߴٰ ߴ. ' ' 'ü '̶  Ȯϰ ǵ ʾҴ. Ϲε鿡 16 12-17%  ߴٰ ߴ.

ڵ  ٶ󺸴°?

(a)  ׻ Ǽ ɸ Ųٰų (b)  ǽ еȴٰų, (c)  ȸϴ ɸ ǰ ߿ ⿩ Ѵٴ ϴ ŵ . The Royal College of Psychiatrists ȸ  ࿡ б ȸŰ ϴ ״. ׷ δ British Psychological Society ̷ Ű ʾ 1995 "ġ ϴ ߿ ȸ £ ؼ ϶" ȸ鿡 ˱ϰ ִ. ȯ ȸ ̻̰ų Ȥ ̳ ȯ󿡼 Ե ִٰ ߴ. ġ ׵ ȯڵ鿡 ϰ ٴ Ű ִٴ ߴ.

̱ The American Psychological Association's  £ 1995⿡ Ͽ. ϸ ȸǴ ٴ ߴ. " ϴ ǻ ̿ κ  κ ׵鿡 Ͼ ص γ Ȥ Ϻθ ϰ ְų ãƳٴ Ϳ ؼ ǰ Ѵ." APA ϸ "ٸ Ǹ Ű ùٸ ϴ Ұϴ" Ѵ. ׷ RMT ġ ġ߿ ׵ ȯڵ abuse Ű ִ ã õ ʿϴٰ ϰ ִ.

RMT ڵ ̶ ϴ°?

" Ѱ Ϸ ڵ   ڶ Ű ." ǿ ұϰ RMT ڵ ȯ μ  б ϱ ؼ üũƮ ϰ ִ. (APA report). ׷  ࿡ ġ ̿ ̷ θ , ũ Ellen Bass, Laura Davis, Wendy Maltz, Beverly Holman, Beverly Engel, Mary Jane Williams and E. Sue Blume ⿬ߴ. ȭ ؼ ٰŰ ߴٴ 鿡 ؼ '' ޾Ƶ鿩 ִ.  Dr. Carol Tavris .

ģ Ÿ̶ Ҹ ִ. å ڵ ׵ ۾ ŷ ٸ οѴ. ׵ å ְ ٸ å ڿ ش. ׵   󰡸 " ̻  trauma( ) ڵ̴." ϸ ⿡ ڵ ġ ߱ īó ȯ ǰ å ٽ ᱹ ó ȴ. ׷Ƿ ߸ , ߸ ׸ ߸ ְ ȴ. (Tavris).

̸׸ ̵ ׷ ǻ Ѱ ߿  ׵ Ʒ ƴ (a) (׵  ̰ų ȸμ  ڸ ġѴ.) Ȥ (b)  ࿡ å Ἥ ȴ.  Tavris ٿ Ʒ ƴϸ, ̰ ׵ ⿡ ɷ̳ Ȥ ġḦ ϴ Ϳ ƴ ̰ ׵ Ϳ Ѱ ̴.

 ̿ θ ʰ, ƴ ִ. ͵̴. (1) ߴٰ ǽ ų Ȥ ̰ ̶ Ѵٸ ̰ "post-incest syndrome" ¡̴.[Blume] (2) Ȯ ſ õ Ͼٰ ִٸ "Ƹ Ͼ ̴"[Bass and Davis]. (3)   ϰ ︸ ִٸ "ģ Ͼ ɼ Ͼ ɼ ο ξ Ѵ"[Maltz and Holman]. ׸ " ǽ ʾƵ,   ׸ ƹ ָϴٰ ص ̷ Ͼ ɼ ִ. ̰ ׷ Ͼ ʾҴٰ ϸ鼭 ﴩ ɼ ִ"[Engel].

RMT techniques

RMT ϱ Ѱ  ࿡ ó ȸ . ¿ ȸ RMT ؼ ˾Ƴ ͺٴ ſ ؼ Ȯϰ ȴ. ǻ, ʿ ޹ħϴ ŵ ȸϴ ܼ Ǿ. ׷ RMT ȯڵ κпԼ ࿡ ȸŲ. RMT ϴ 鿡Դ ̰ RMT ȿ ̴. ȸڵ鿡Դ ̰ ޽ δ. ̷ ¿⿡ ؼ Ͻõǰų Ͻ ؼ ȭ(, confabulations) Ѵ.

RMT ſ پ ϴµ ߿ ָ, visualization, , ׸ trance writing ̷ ȯڵ ܻ ϴµ ǰ Ѵ. ָ ſ ѵ װ ̰ Ͻó Ȥ ָ ̲ ̲ų Ȥ ݷޱ ̴. Trance writing  ġ ġ ִٴ ͵ ߴ(Schacter, 1996, 271). ٸ ġ ȭ(communal reinforcement) Ͼ . ܾȿ Ե ٸ 鿡 չ ʰ ̻ ̾߱⸦ ݷ ִ. б ʰ ȯ ̰ ϴ ִ.

guided imagery Ǵ visualization ġ߿ ϴ ſ ִ. ׳ ġ  ׳ ƹ ׳ฦ µ ־ ϰ ִ.

ƹ Ű ־ ״ ſ£ ׸ ׷ȴ. ߰ſ ⸦ ̿ ׷ ״ ȭ ΰ ׷ȴ. ̰ ̾ 츮 ⼭ ߴ.

׸ [ ġ] ߴ. ' ֽϴ. ƹ ſ£ ׸ ׸ ֽϴ. ״ ׸?' ׸ ״ ߴ. 'OK, ƹ ſ ٰ ֽϴ. ״ մϴ. ?' ٷ ̷ âǾ. (Hallinan, 1997).

׳ ƹ ߴٰ ϰ Ǿ ſ ħ ڻ õߴ. ׳ ġḦ ׸ξ ¥̸ ġ߿ ̶ ϰ ִ.

̾Ƴ Һ (Diana Halbrook) RMT ź ǽ ش. trance writing߿ Һ ׳ ƹ ׳ฦ ߴٰ . ̰ ׳࿡ ſ ! ׳ ġḦ satanic ritual sacrifices ̻ ̾߱⸦ Ǿ. ׳ trance writing ߿ ׳డ Ʊ⸦ ׿ٴ ȸϴµ ̻ Ÿ ִ.  

̾Ƴ Һ ritual abuse ʹ ̻ؼ ׳ ̷ ͵ ־ ׸ ٸ ׳డ ȸ ͵鵵 ǽ Ŀ. ׷ ̷ ǽ ׳ฦ ϴ ׷ ׳ ġ翡 ؼ ޾Ҵ. " ߰, װ͵ ǽ߽ϴ. ׷ ġ翡 , ״ ȣ ġ, "ž ҳ" ǽ ϳ ٰ ߽ϴ.  ״ ̶ ߽ϴ. Ͼ ϴ. ׷ ׸ Ͼϴ."(Schacter, 1996, 269).

Һ ٴϿ Ͱ "toxic"ϴٰ ġḦ ׸ξ ̻ ̻ ʴ´. Schacter " ո ؼ [ġ߿ ȸ] ǿ ƹ ٰŵ ̴." ߴ.

پ ġ ߴ ""ϰ ϴµ ſ ̴. ""  ߴٴ ͻӸ ƴ϶ ܰο ġǾ ̳ İ ߴٰų, satanic rituals ߴٰų Ȥ ſ ū ޾Ҵٴ Ͱ ̻ 뵵 ԵǾ ִ.

ɸ Joseph de Rivera RMT "ȯڵ ȯ󿡼 ϵ ִ ̶ ٴ ̶ Ҹ ''ϵ ˱Ѵ" ߴ. ׸ ȯڵ ̹ - ̶  Ͼ - ġ ȯڵ鿡 װ Ͼٰ ȮŽŰ Ѵ." ״ ̷ ġ " Ͼ Ͱ ȯ ϱ ϰ ıϵ ߱" Ͽ(de Rivera, 1993).

ı (False Memory Syndrome Foundation)(: ڸ ()̶ ؾ߰) ̷ ʰ ̳ ϵǾ ִٰ ߴ. ʵ ġ ¥ ɾ ؾǿ ؼ å Ѵٴ Ǿ. RMT 鿡 ؼ Ҿ ȸǾٴ (ſ) ұϰ ǻ ġ鿡 ؼ ȸ ŷ ޾Ƶ ʾҴ. ǻ William J. Groff 1995 װ ɸ ǿ .

... , ׸ ǿ ȸŰ ؼ ġ ɸко߿ ޾Ƶ鿩 ʴ´. ׷Ƿ ź . (quoted in Schacter, 1996, 267).

ٸ ǻ Linda Dalianas ٸ ǿ ̷ ޾Ƶ鿴 ״ ߴ.

... е ̶ Ҹ ȸǴ ̳ ɼ θ ޾Ƶ ̴. ֳϸ "Ҿ " ȸǾ° Ȥ  װ Ѱ Ȥ ݴ ̷п  ڷᵵ ϱ ̴ (Schacter, 1996, 267).

ĶϾƿ ȸ Ǿ Ӹ ƴ϶, ǰ ٰ Ǿ. ᱹ س λ κ Ź ־ ̶ ǻ簡 ߴܽ״ٴ ٰŷ . ׳డ ˿ flashback ڿ ̶ ׳ ָ ߿ ﵵ δ ƴ϶ Ϻδ 巯.

Are RMT therapists creating false memories of abuse?

" (The Memory Wars)" Danie Schacter б£ 1996 å Searching for Memory Ÿ̵̴. б   "ȸ " Ǵ ɸ Ѵٴ  Ͱ . - ȸ ̶ ϴ -  ü ΰ ִ  ġ ߿ ȸǾ߸ Ѵٴǰ ϰ ִ. ٸ - ¥ ϴ»-ġ߿ ȸ  ȸ ƴ϶ ȯ Ͻÿ ؼ ̰ų Ȥ ġ߿ ġ鿡 ؼ ɾ ̶ ϰ ִ.

ȸ ϴ ٸ 鵵 Lenore Terr, Laura Brown, Kenneth Pope, Laura Davis and Ellen Bass ִ. ¥ ̶ ϴ 鵵 Elizabeth Loftus, Carol Tavris, Richard Ofshe ¥ ı (False Memory Syndrome Foundation) ִ.

߱ϴ ʰ Ǹ, , Ѵ. Schacter װ о߿ ؼ ˰ ִ ̳ 𸣴 ̳ ؼ ȴ ó δ. ƴ϶, ſ δ.(272).

ù°, ¥ ٴ 迡 ٰŰ ̷ ŵ ʴ. װ ̴. °, ġ ü Ȥ Ư Ͻ Ȯ â å ִ° Ȯ Ű . °,   Բ Ϻ ġ ࿡ ȯ ȸ âϴ شٴ Ѵ.....

ٸ δ Schacter ִ κ ̸, (RMT ٰ) ʴ´ٴ Ÿ Ѵ. ɸڳ źڵ ̿ θ ޾Ƶ鿩 ִ - ظ(dissociation) ̷а õǾ ִ. - ۿ ϴ. RMT  ϰ ִ (symptom)߿ Ѱ Ÿ ̰  Ŷ ϸ鼭 ߴ. ̷ κ ܻ (trauma) ϰ ɰ ɸ Ÿٰ ͵̴. ݰ ȯ ִ. ׵ ȯڵ ߴٰ ϴ ġ̳ ׵ ƹ ȯ̰ ̶ ص Ȯ ̰ų Ȥ ¡̶ ϴ ׵ ȯڵ鿡 ׵ ߴٴ ɾ ʿ䰡 ̴. Ͼ ʾƵ 翬ϴٰ ϴ ġ ׵ ̴ ȯ  ̶ ̲ ̴.

þ ϸ ϴ ó ȸϴ° ޷ ־(Schacter, 1996, 116). ׷Ƿ ࿡ ȸ ſ ϰ Ȥ κп ڼϴٰ ص ó ؼ Ȯ ִ. ̾Ƴ Һ ʿ ׳ satanic ritual ü ̴.

memories of abuse as symbolic

RMT ׷ £ , п ǽɽ ̳ Ȥ ȯڵ ȸ ¡ ǹ̸ ؼϴ ׵ ̸ ǰ ʰ ϴ , RMT ׵ ȯڿ ɾִ° ̴. ̰ ǵ ƴϰ, RMT ġ鿡 ġḦ ȯڵ Ҽ ̴. ׵ ġ߿ ȸ  ϰ ׵ ġ ׵ ɾ־ ׵ ıߴٰ ߴ. ׷ Ư Ư ġ翡 ؼ ɾٰų Ȥ ɾ ʾҴٴ Ͱ õ ſ ߿ ε, װ ̵ ſ ̸ ſ ı̰  ı̱ ̴. ġ ȯڵ ΰ踦 ȯڵ ɾ־ٸ ȯڵ ̷ г ʾ ̴.

Ϻ RMT ؼ ȸ ſ ̻ ̸, ̻ ̶ Ϲݻ ո ̶ ׸ ׸ ״ ޾Ƶ ̶ ̴. RMT ׷ ̻ ȸ ؼ ʾҴ. ׵ װ ׸ ״ ޾Ƶ̴ ( ܰ ġ ȯڵ鿡 Ͱ ٸ ̵ ɹ ׷ Ѵ.) ƴϸ ٸ糽 (artifact) ޾Ƶ̸ ̰ ġ ġ ڵ (artifact) ߷ϵ мؾ߸ ϴ ޾Ƶδ. ƴϸ ̷ ȯ ǥϴ ޾Ƶδ.

, þƲ RMT ߽ɿ ִ ζ ȯ "Ƹ Ͼ ȣȭ Ȥ ¡ȭ ǥ"̶ ߴ. ׳డ Ͼ ̶ ϴ  ǹϴ ̴. "Ƽֶ ˷ ߿ satanin ritual̳ ߸ ֽ(orgies) Ÿ ƴ°? Dr. Brwon ִ(Hallinan, 1997). ( : Ϲ ֽ ð ȥ ϴ Ǹ ̰ ε ̿ dz並 ϴ .)

ſ, False Memory Syndrome Foundation ̶ ׳ ȯ ¡ȭ ü ź ߴ. ȯ ȴٰ ϴ Ŵ ִ°?  츮 ǿ Ƿ ¡ȭ ִ°? ¡ ָ ̴. 츮  ƴ϶, Ȥ ῡ ƴ϶, Ǵ ȯڸ ̰ ƴ϶, Ǵ ġ ڽŵ鿡 ƴ϶, ٷ  ¡ϴ ̶ Ȯ ִ°?  츮 ¡ ƴ϶ Ȯ ִ°?  츮 ¡ ٸ ƴ϶ Ȯ ִ°?  ϸ 츮 ¡ ηϴ ¡ϴ ִ°?  翡 ϴ ηϴ Ÿ ¡ ٸ ϴ ηϴ ¡ϴ Ͱ, Ȥ ſ ȸϴ ¡ ? Ư ¡ ǥ ¡ ؼ ߸ ɼ Ȯϴ.

츮  ̶ װ ̴ ̴, ݿϴ, ̴ ̴ְ, ̷ Ʒù ġ縸 ִٴ ǽɾ ޾Ƶ鿩 ϴ°? ̷ Ϻ RMT ȣڵ . ׷ٸ, 츮 д źǸ ޾Ƶ鿩 Ѵٰ û ޴ ̴. ׸ ״ ¡ ޽ ְڴ°? ִ ְڴ°? Ǵ ȮѰ ƴѰ ̰ ʿ ̰ų ִ. ׷ Ǵ (memory) ǹ̸ ִ° ̶, ǹ̰ ִٴ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̴. ֳϸ 츮   ൿ Ѵٴ ʱ ̴.

츮  ȭ(, confabulation) ¥ Ǵ ְڴ°? ġ 츮߿ ̳ ؼϴ 츮 ̾߱ Ǵ°? ̾߱μ, 츮 ̾߱Ⱑ ƴ ¡̾ ٸ ̾߱ ؼϰ, ٽ ٸ ̾߱ ؼϰ ӵǾ Ѵٰ ϴ ո ? Ƹ, "" ޾Ƶ鿩 ʵǰ ¡ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̴. Ƹ, ġ "" "ġ" ְ ؾ߸ ̴. ࿡ ġ ׷ٸ, ׷ ġ ɸ ູ DZ ٴ Ծ Ⱑ ̴.  ִ ü 亯 ʰ ׵ ´ ó ̵ Ӱ  Ͼ dz ʰ ִ. ̵  ͵ . 츮 ġ ܶ ؾ ϴ°?

õ ׸ : false memory, hypnosis, hystero-epilepsymemory, multiple personality disorder, psychology, repressed memory therapy, satanic ritual abuse, New Age Therapies and the unconscious mind.


б ڷ

reader comments

Baker, Robert A. Hidden Memories: Voices and Visions From Within (Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1992.).

de Rivera, Joseph. "'Trauma searches' plant the seed of imagined misery," The Sacramento Bee, May 18, 1993.

Hallinan, Joseph T. "Money for repressed memories repressed," Sacramento Bee, Jan. 12, 1997, Forum.

Johnson, M.K. et al. "Source Monitoring," Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28.

Johnston, Moira. Spectral Evidence: The Ramona Case: Incest, Memory, and Truth on Trial in Napa Valley  (Westview Press, 1999).

Loftus, Elizabeth. The Myth of Repressed Memory (New York: St. Martin's, 1994).

Ofshe, Richard and Ethan Watters. Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria (New York: Scribner's, 1994).

Schacter, Daniel L., editor, Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past (Harvard University Press, 1997).

Schacter, Daniel L. Searching for Memory - the brain, the mind, and the past (New York: Basic Books, 1996).

Singer, Margaret Thaler and Janja Lalich. Crazy Therapies (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1996).   Review of "Crazy" Therapies

Tavris, Carol. "Hysteria and the incest-survivor machine," Sacramento Bee, Forum section, January 17, 1993.

Wakefield, Hollida and Ralph Underwager. Return of the Furies - An Investigation into Recovered Memory Therapy (Peru, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Co., 1994).

Copyright 2000
Robert Todd Carroll

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